MS new Versions & Releases

Windows Server 2019 

This one is available to techs from last quarter of the year 2018.


Windows Server 2016

Windows 2012 R2
10 features of Windows Server 2012 R2:
  1. High-performance Live Migration
  2. Multi-node Hyper-V Replica with configurable replication frequency
  3. Shared VHDX guest clustering
  4. Enhanced Linux Integration Services
  5. Hyper-V Network Virtualization
  6. Multi-tenant VPN Gateway
  7. Low-cost, highly available file-based storage
  8. Storage Spaces with automatic tiering
  9. VHD De-duplication for VDI
  10. Work Folders-Workload Mobility – Shared-Nothing Live Migration

To know more about this features refer:

Windows 8.1 available for download at
System Requirements: Windows 8.1 Enterprise works great on the same hardware that powers Windows 8:
  • Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster
  • RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)
  • Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)
  • Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver
Additional requirements to use certain features, Refer link

Windows 8 Consumer Preview works great on the same hardware that powers Windows 7.

System Requirements:

  • Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster
  • RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)
  • Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)
  • Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device or higher
  • To use touch, you need a tablet or monitor that supports multitouch.To access Windows Store and to download and run apps, you need an active Internet connection and a screen resolution of at least 1024 x 768.To snap apps, you need a screen resolution of at least 1366 x 768

Whats new in windows8:

Windows Server 2012:
RTM version released to public on 4th September 2012 by satya nadella, MS.
Minimum System requirements:

Device  Minimum
Processor  1.4GHz 64-Bit Proc
RAM 512 MB
HD Disk Space 32GB (excluding page file, dump & hibernation files)
If you are running: You can upgrade to these editions:
Windows Server 2008 Standard with SP2 or Windows Server 2008 Enterprise with SP2 Windows Server 2012 Standard, Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter with SP2 Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008 Windows Server 2012 Standard
Windows Server 2008 R2 Standard with SP1 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise with SP1 Windows Server 2012 Standard, Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Server 2008 R2 Datacenter with SP1 Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Windows Web Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2012 Standar
Extended support for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 is ending on January 14, 2020. 

Issues and Hot-fixes

  1. Microsoft Windows 2003 Known Issue – ICA and RDP Connections Fail After Installing Microsoft Patch MS12-024– more details we can find here
  2. Cluster hot fixes for win2K8R2:
  3. MS Hot fix blog:
  4. Troubleshooting Event ID 333 Errors:
  5. VSS error codes and solutions:
  6. Activation Error Codes:
  7. FIX: Windows Process Activation Service (WAS) does not start when you use the IISRESET /RESTART command to restart IIS 7.0 or IIS 7.5

Free Tools & Utilities

File Server and Storage

DNS, DHCP and other N/w Infra Concepts

DNS Query Process:

Links :
While reading the above links, I have remembered few important steps. In brief  that are

  • Authoritative DNS Query:  It is a process of DNS query when the client (Resolver) will send a query to one of their DNS servers. The DNS server looks in it’s database to tell the client to which domain it belongs to.
  • Non-Authoritative DNS Query: If the server cannot answer the query authoritatively it will look in its DNS cache of previous queries. If the DNS server finds a matching entry in its cache, it will answer the query with a non-authoritative answer based on the information in its cache and the DNS query process is complete.
  • Recursive and Iterative process : If the DNS server did not have the information in its DNS database or its DNS cache the DNS query process will use recursion to complete the DNS query. The  DNS server will use its root hints file to find information to contact other DNS servers. The root hints file specified DNS servers that are authoritative for the DNS domain root and top level domains in the DNS system. From Client to DNS: Recursive query. From DNS to Root Hints: Iterative query. Recursive name queries are generally made by a DNS client to a DNS server, or by a DNS server that is configured to pass unresolved name queries to another DNS server, in the case of a DNS server configured to use a forwarder.An iterative name query is one in which a DNS client allows the DNS server to return the best answer it can give based on its cache or zone data
  • Caching only DNS servers: Nothing but DNS servers that only perform queries, cache the answers, and return the results. They are not authoritative for any domains and the information that they contain is limited to what has been cached while resolving queries. All DNS servers cache queries that they have resolved

Understanding DNS Zones:
AD Integrated-Zone:

  • Standard zone storage, using a text-based file.
  • Zones stored this way are located in .Dns files that are stored in the systemroot\System32\Dns folder on each computer operating a DNS server. 
  • Zone file names correspond to the name you choose for the zone when creating it, such as if the zone name was “”
  • Directory-integrated zone storage, using the Active Directory database.Zones stored this way are located in the Active Directory tree under the domain or application directory partition. Each directory-integrated zone is stored in a dnsZone container object identified by the name you choose for the zone when creating it.

Benefits of AD Integrated Zone:

  • Multimaster update and enhanced security based on the capabilities of Active Directory.
  • Zones are replicated and synchronized to new domain controllers automatically whenever a new one is added to an Active Directory domain.
  • By integrating storage of your DNS zone databases in Active Directory, you can streamline database replication planning for your network.
  • Directory replication is faster and more efficient than standard DNS replication.

Various DNS event IDs:

·     DNS issue: Found an error “Missing glue A record” in dcdiag/test:DNScommand output. Remedy for this is in DNS console check and delete grayed out (if any?) in forward look up zone. 

DNS Event IDs doesn’t requires any actions:
Note: The caching-only server does not perform zone transfers, which can also be network intensive in WAN environments.
Nice blog for AD DC/DNS best practices:

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ) Lease Process: DORA process

  • Discover: The Client will initially send a broadcast in an attempt to discover a DHCP server on the network.
  • Offer: The DHCP server will ‘see’ the Client looking for the DHCP service and respond with an ‘offer’, which is an IP address.
  • Request: The Client will receive the ‘offer’ and, in most cases, will accept it. This means it sends an ‘official request’ for the same IP address offered previously by the server.
  • Accept: The DHCP server will complete the transaction by sending an ‘accept’ message and marking the particular IP address for the specific Client.
Split-scope configuration can done based on the allow/exclusion range of IP addresses. It can be 50-50/60-40/70-30/80-20, based on the requirement.So, only thing we have to concentrate on allow/exclusion IP range.
More about DHCP 2008 R2:
MVP’s DHCP useful link:
DHCP lease useful thread:
Related technet forum
Quick Reference: Troubleshooting Netlogon Error Codes: