Windows-General

Run-as option in windows server 2k8 & win7: Select application and press “Shift+right click” it will prompt you run as different user option.
Win 7 Keyboard shortcuts:http://windows.microsoft.com/en-us/Windows7/Keyboard-shortcuts
Windows2K8 Installation guidehttp://www.petri.co.il/how-to-install-windows-server-2008-step-by-step.htm
Windows2K8 system requirements:

Component Requirement
Processor • Minimum: 1 GHz (x86 processor) or 1.4 GHz (x64 processor)
• Recommended: 2 GHz or faster
Note: An Intel Itanium 2 processor is required for Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems.
Memory • Minimum: 512 MB RAM
• Recommended: 2 GB RAM or greater
• Maximum (32-bit systems): 4 GB (Standard) or 64 GB (Enterprise and Datacenter)
• Maximum (64-bit systems): 32 GB (Standard) or 1 TB (Enterprise and Datacenter) or 2 TB (Itanium-Based Systems)
Available Disk Space • Minimum: 10 GB
• Recommended: 40 GB or greater
Note: Computers with more than 16 GB of RAM will require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files.
Drive DVD-ROM drive
Display and Peripherals • Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher-resolution monitor
• Keyboard
• Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device

Slow Logon issue(Ned’s blog)http://blogs.technet.com/b/askds/archive/2012/05/01/new-slow-logon-slow-boot-troubleshooting-content.aspx
Memory Leak Detection and Isolation:http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/x98tx3cf(v=vs.80)
Memory diagnostics:http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/2008.09.utilityspotlight.aspx?pr=blog
roubleshoot Event ID 333:http://blogs.technet.com/b/askperf/archive/2007/10/30/troubleshooting-event-id-333-errors.aspx

Paged pool and Non Paged pool:
  • Paged pool: Windows can write the data it stores to the paging file, allowing the physical memory it occupies to be re-purposed.
  • When a driver or the system references paged pool memory that’s in the paging file, an operation called a page fault occurs and the memory manager reads the data back into physical memory.
  • The largest consumer of paged pool is typically the Registry. References to registry keys and other registry data structures are stored in paged pool.
  • Non-Paged pool:The kernel and device drivers use non-paged pool to store data that might be accessed when the system can’t handle page faults.
  • The kernel enters such a state when it executes interrupt service routines (ISRs) and deferred procedure calls (DPCs), which are functions related to hardware interrupts.
  • Non-paged pool is therefore always kept present in physical memory and non-paged pool virtual memory is assigned physical memory.
  • Common system data structures stored in nonpaged pool include the kernel and objects that represent processes and threads, synchronization objects like mutexes, semaphores and events, references to files, which are represented as file objects, and I/O request packets (IRPs), which represent I/O operations. 
  • http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc938590.aspxGood link for understanding memory usage
  • Overview of Performance Monitoring:http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc938566

Win Debugging tools: for dump file analysis download windebuger SW and analyze the *.dmp file to know the cause of server shutdown.Links for the software: https://skydrive.live.com/#cid=63D5AB5243DB43E7&id=63D5AB5243DB43E7%21120 or http://www.windbg.org/
Another link for the steps to analyse a dmp file: http://blogs.technet.com/b/askcore/archive/2008/11/01/how-to-debug-kernel-mode-blue-screen-crashes-for-beginners.aspx#3476888
Bug Checkhttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/hardware/ff559023%28v=vs.85%29.aspx
Dump file partly corrupt:http://blogs.msdn.com/b/dougste/archive/2009/06/12/this-dump-file-is-partially-corrupt.aspx

Procedure to set up computer configuration as desktop wallpaper: Here is the simple script which can be set your computer information as desktop wallpaper.

  • Download the file from http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897557.aspx copy to c:\BGInfo (for example).
  • Extract and double click on Bginfo.exe.
  •  Once you open, you will see a lot of features on your computer which should displayed to onto computer. 
  • So select the required fields and delete remaining and go to File—>click on save as bginfo1.bgi on to c:\BGInfo. · 
  •  Now create a batch script called bginfo.cmd with the following command lines.
@echo off
Title Sets the computer information as desktop background
c:\BGInfo\BGInfo.exe c:\BGInfo\bginfo1.bgi /timer:0 /accepteula
Once this is done, execute the bacth script which you have created now and you should be able to see the above desktop wallpaper and this can be applied to all computers through Group policy too.
How to enable Remote Desktop remotely:In a case you want to remote access a Windows and the computer Remote Desktop is not enabled, or no one over there to help you to enable it, you may have an option to enable Remote Desktop remotely by using regedit.
To enabling Remote Desktop using regedit, follow these steps:
1.Run REGEDIT from Start>Run
2.Click on File, and then select Connect Network Registry
3.Type the remote computer IP or host name in the Enter the object name to select and the click OK.

Step 4 Pic

Step5 Pic

4. If you don’t have permission to access the remote computer, the logon screen will show up. Type the username and password for the remote computer. Then click OK. For more detail see below pics
5. Now, the remote computer is listed in the Registry Editor. For more detail see below pics.
6. Browse to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server, in the right panel, seelct fDenyTSConnection (REG_DWORD). Change the value data from 1 (Remote Desktop disabled) to 0 (Remote Desktop enabled).
7. Close the regedit.exe.
Using command prompt enable RDP : 
reg add HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server” /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f once you ran this command, reboot the server using command shutdown -r.

Another Important link for Windows: http://www.computerperformance.co.uk/
Building the next generation file system for Windows: ReFS:
Along with Storage Spaces, ReFS forms the foundation of storage on Windows for the next decade or more. We believe this significantly advances our state of the art for storage. Together, Storage Spaces and ReFS have been architected with headroom to innovate further, and we expect that we will see ReFS as the next massively deployed file system.
Q) Why is it named ReFS?
ReFS stands for Resilient File System. Although it is designed to be better in many dimensions, resiliency stands out as one of its most prominent features.
Q) What are the capacity limits of ReFS?The table below shows the capacity limits of the on-disk format. Other concerns may determine some practical limits, such as the system configuration (for example, the amount of memory), limits set by various system components, as well as time taken to populate data sets, backup times, etc.
Q) Can I convert data between NTFS and ReFS?
In Windows 8 there is no way to convert data in place. Data can be copied. This was an intentional design decision given the size of data sets that we see today and how impractical it would be to do this conversion in place, in addition to the likely change in architected approach before and after conversion.
Q) Can I boot from ReFS in Windows Server 8?
No, this is not implemented or supported.
Q) Can ReFS be used on removable media or drives?
No, this is not implemented or supported.
Q) What semantics or features of NTFS are no longer supported on ReFS?
The NTFS features we have chosen to not support in ReFS are: named streams, object IDs, short names, compression, file level encryption (EFS), user data transactions, sparse, hard-links, extended attributes, and quotas.
Q) What about parity spaces and ReFS?
ReFS is supported on the fault resiliency options provided by Storage Spaces. In Windows Server 8, automatic data correction is implemented for mirrored spaces only.
Q) Is clustering supported?
Failover clustering is supported, whereby individual volumes can failover across machines. In addition, shared storage pools in a cluster are supported.
Q) What about RAID? How do I use ReFS capabilities of striping, mirroring, or other forms of RAID? Does ReFS deliver the read performance needed for video, for example?
ReFS leverages the data redundancy capabilities of Storage Spaces, which include striped mirrors and parity. The read performance of ReFS is expected to be similar to that of NTFS, with which it shares a lot of the relevant code. It will be great at streaming data.
Q) How come ReFS does not have deduplication, second level caching between DRAM & storage, and writable snapshots?
ReFS does not itself offer deduplication. One side effect of its familiar, pluggable, file system architecture is that other deduplication products will be able to plug into ReFS the same way they do with NTFS.
ReFS does not explicitly implement a second-level cache, but customers can use third-party solutions for this.
ReFS and VSS work together to provide snapshots in a manner consistent with NTFS in Windows environments. For now, they don’t support writable snapshots or snapshots larger than 64TB.
For more information, please click on the link http://blogs.msdn.com/b/b8/archive/2012/01/16/building-the-next-generation-file-system-for-windows-refs.aspx
Event IDs for OS 2K&2K3:http://www.microsoft.com/technet/support/ee/ee_advanced.aspx
Event IDs another links http://eventopedia.cloudapp.net/ & http://kb.prismmicrosys.com/evtPass/advanced_search.asp
Windows securityhttp://www.ultimatewindowssecurity.com/securitylog/encyclopedia/event.aspx?eventid=4624
for OS 2K8:http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd299434(v=ws.10)
C Drive Disk Space creation:http://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/en-US/winserverfiles/thread/4e56f1bb-3592-42ee-bf03-8dbcf662f025
Why winsxs folder eats more disk space:http://blogs.technet.com/b/askcore/archive/2008/09/17/what-is-the-winsxs-directory-in-windows-2008-and-windows-vista-and-why-is-it-so-large.aspx
Should you delete files in the \WinSXS directory? And what’s the deal with VSS? Answer is “NO” why means refer this:http://blogs.technet.com/b/joscon/archive/2010/08/06/should-you-delete-files-in-the-winsxs-directory-and-what-s-the-deal-with-vss.aspx
Why winsxs folder eats more disk space: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/2795190
KMS server Key:command slmgr.vbs/dlv 
Ports in Windows server http://support.microsoft.com/kb/832017
If network printer is offline.Something is interfering with the SNMP response from the printer. On the ports tab of the affected printers, Configure the port and uncheck SNMP until you figure out what the issue is. Setup a TEST printer using a port with SNMP enabled so you can work on the issue and still have an working queue for others to use. I’d also verify that the firmware on the network cards of the printers are the same version.
Possible errors in Win2k8/2k8R2:http://msmvps.com/blogs/mweber/archive/2011/02/07/possible-error-messages-on-windows-server-2008-and-windows-server-2008-r2-domain-controllers.aspx
Disk management:Extend basic volume-http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc771473.aspx
Extend volume-http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc771939.aspx
Diskpart is nice command and it is useful to make USB drive Bootable: http://stevenwestwell.wordpress.com/2008/07/18/creating-a-bootable-usb-drive/
Why Event ID 55 occurs in windows servers/system use a Chkdsk utility to fix the issues:http://blogs.technet.com/b/askcore/archive/2012/05/09/event-id-55-when-good-bits-go-bad.aspx
System Error codes& description: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms681381.aspxhttp://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms681387(v=vs.85).aspx
VSS writers fix:-http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/vss-fixbat
IP packet size of NICs:http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/confirmation.aspx?id=9152
Network Ports used by Key MS server Products:http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc875824.aspx
Command to determine forest/domain functional level:
Dsquery * CN=Partitions,CN=Configuration,DC=lantmannen,DC=lan -scope base -attr msDS-Behavior-Version

The attributes that indicates DFL and FFL: 
–      Forest level setting
Name:          msDS-Behavior-Version
Path:             CN=Partitions, CN=Configuration, DC=, DC=com
Value:           0 or not set=mixed level forest
1=Windows Server 2003 interim forest level
2=Windows Server 2003 forest level
3=Windows Server 2008 forest level
–      Domain level setting
Name:          msDS-Behavior-Version
Path:             DC=, DC=, DC=com (domain root)
Value:           0 or not set=mixed level domain
1=Windows Server 2003 domain level
2=Windows Server 2003 domain level
3=Windows Server 2008 domain level
–      Mixed/Native mode setting
Name:          ntMixedDomain
Path:             DC=, DC=, DC=com (domain root)
Value:           0=Native level domain
                    1=Mixed level domain